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118
METALLURGY OF IRON AND STEEL.
increase of manganese in the bath during a time when there was no addition of this element from outside the vessel.
The quantitative investigation of the basic converter is unsatisfactory,, as some lime is blown out as soon as the charge is turned up, while at a later time a large amount of slag may be expelled by explosive action, this being particularly marked when the temperature is low. Moreover, the lumps of lime do not immediately become incorporated into the slag and no true sample can be taken. It is from these causes that contradictory statements are made by careful observers.
TABLE YII-C.
High-Sulphur Iron in the Basic Converter. (See Journal I. and 8.1., Vol. I, 1893, pp. 61 and 62.)
Metal.	Composition, per cent.				
	Initial.	Desili-conized.	Decar-burized.	Dephosphorized.	Steel.
Carbon      ..........	2.82 0.66 1.57 0.16 1.85	2.180 0.200 0.800 0.148 1.820	0.07 0.09 0.07 0.16 1.53	0.02 0.06 trace. 0.08 0.04	
Manganese . .       .....					' ' 6.07
Silicon   ...........					
					
"    Phosphorus .........					
					
Slag.					
CaO  . . . . .........		44.30 0.72 6.60 4.88 1.29 89.20 2.61 0.16	47.00 0.86 .    4.46 8.23 1.00 29.80 7.83 0.10	46.70 1.80 2.51 14.02 4.29 14.90 14.86 0.86	
MgO .............					
MnO . ............					10.79 9.00 2.14
yeO  ........ .....					
					
SiO« •   .       ........					
P.O.        .              ......					
s        :::::::::					0.36
					
Prohable weight of liquid Blag In per cent, of metal .		7	11	27	
					
Quantitative calculation on the Sulphur. Sulphur In. lime used, per cent.= 0.054 per cent.
27 per cent, of slag @ 0.86 per cent. S (see above columns) = per cent.  . Less sulphur in lime added = 15.2 per cent, of 0.054 per cent. = per cent.
Total sulphur received from metal, per cent...............       0.089
Bulphur removed from metal:
100 parts of initial iron contained, per cent.................       0.160
Less 85 parta of blown metal containing 0.080 per cent. S = per cent. . .       0.068
Total sulphur removed, per cent......................      0.082
Wedding states* that there is a volatilization of both sulphur and phosphorus, as proven by the fact that the slags from sulphurous metal do not give correspondingly increased percentages of
0.007 0.008
* The Process of German Metallurgy,   Trans. A. I. M. E,, Vol. XIX, p. 367.